WIND ENERGY & TRACKER

Introduction: WIND ENERGY & TRACKER

Wind turbines have been used by humans for a long time. Its first purpose was not to produce electrical energy. They were used mainly for agricultural purposes to grind grain and pump water. When the knowledge of electromagnetism increased, the first wind turbines generating electricity appeared. And after a long time of study, it indicates that the best option for energy production is the horizontal axis wind turbine as it is the best solution. And, they have developed that as well by using control systems to obtain the maximum power from the wind by tracking its direction and direct the wind turbine to it.

So, our project is to design and implement a small-scale model of the actual size of an industrial wind turbine to produce electrical energy to use it in hoses and farms. Also, we have used control systems to obtain the maximum power from the wind by tracking its direction and directs the wind turbine to it.

Supplies

(1) Wind power generator has these specifications: leaf material is nylon fiber, generator case is casting aluminum alloy, wind wheel diameter is 1.25m, blade length is 0.6m, weight is 9kg, power is 8000W, rated voltage is 12/24V, starting wind speed is 2.0m/s, rated wind speed is 11.5m/s, safe wind speed is 55m/s, control system is electromagnet/wind wheel yaw and operating temperature is -40℃~+80℃.

(1) Charge control.

Cost: 3000 SR

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(1)PIC16F882 Microcontroller.

Cost: 11 SR

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(1) Arduino Uno.

Cost: 50 SR

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(6)Water flow sensors.

cost: 522 SR

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(1)LCD16*2.

Cost: 45 SR

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(2) Relay 12v, 10 A.

Cost: 20 SR

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(1) 7805 Regulator.

Cost: 6 SR

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(1)Dc motor with gearbox 12v.

Cost: 110

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(6) Limit switch.

Cost: 90 SR

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(1) Resistor 10K

(1) LED.

cost: 2 SR

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(1) Rechargeable battery 12v, 5 amp/ hour.

Cost: 60 SR

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(4) USB outlet.

Cost: 40 SR

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(2) Voltmeter.

cost: 0000

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(1) Pipe 150cm- 1.5 inch.

(1) Pipe with stent.

(2) Bearings.

(1) Iron sheet 50*50cm- 4mm.

(1) small metal box 40*40*40

Cost: 1050 SR

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wires

cost: 0000

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Total cost: 5006 SR

Step 1: First Part: Building a Mechanical System From the Bottom to the Top

We have installed a stent pipe on the iron sheet which is our base as you see in the pic. After that, we installed 8-inch pipe inside the stent pipe to install our sensors which we will explain it later. Then, we welded two bearings from inside with a top of the pipe. After that, we welded the small base with the pipe from out of bearings. Also, we installed dc motor at a top of the pipe by using small dc motor base, ensure that the rotation axis is up and, the rotation axis has hole to install a screw which is connected to the small base by wilding to make it smoothly move. finally, we installed our wind power generator on the top of the small base stent and we installed the blades on it as well.

Step 2: Second Part: Building an Electrical Systems.

After we built our mechanical system, we stared to build the electrical system. Actually, we have two separate electrical systems in our project. First system is that the electricity comes from the wind power generator which is connected to charge controller and then to the battery. That system is 3-phase AC, has 3- wires come from the wind power generator connect to charger control which converts 3-phase AC to DC voltage in order to feeds the battery and we connected 4- USBs outlet direct to the battery for user utilization. We also connect 2-voltmeters, the first one is to show us the reading result of a voltage which comes from the generator and the other one is to show us reading result of the battery voltage status. The second electrical system is PIC controller connected with one dc motor, 6-limit switch and 6- waterflow sensors, which we use them as an airflow because they have fan with high sensing of air pressure and they have digital output as well. These sensors is distributed on 360 degrees and each sensor is on 60 degrees a way from the other. We connected the motor and sensors to the Pic microcontroller which we will explain it later. Also, we installed 6-limit switches around the main pipe stent which are connected to the Pic microcontroller to stop the dc motor when they alignments with the right sensor by using small pipe installed with small base which we did it in mechanical part to push the limit switch when it arrives to the right point to disconnect the dc motor.

Step 3: Third Part: Connecting and Controlling.

In this part we will explain how we connected all components together. First, we used PIC16F882 as a mine microcontroller to our project. All components which are dc motor, sensors and limit switch have been connected to pic by wires. Also, we use time interrupted in our program as a related point for all operation. How is that?

The pic microcontroller has 25 pins as input and output. it will take 5v and ground as well to run on, so we named each pins which connected to each sensors, each limit switch and dc motor. Then we did the time interrupted as alarm for each 5 sec to be as related base for the system. When we run on the system, the system will set it self to sensor no.1. And, all sensor will sense any air for 5 sec. Then, the sensor will send data as digital pulses to pic for any high air performance on any sensor. After that, the pic will make its calculation by accounting the number of pulses which come from any sensor and send its command to dc motor to move to a right position by using limit switch for each sensor to stop the dc motor. For dc motor, we used 2- relays as series to increase the voltage up to 12v to run it on because the voltage signal which comes from the pic is to low can not run on the dc motor. We set the pic to run the dc motor on from 0 to 360 degree as clockwise and counter-clockwise depending on the high pulses which come from the sensor. Finally, we connect our pic microcontroller by Arduino Uno to show us the information abut the position and the rate of pulses by using LCD 16*2. We attached Pic diagram, Pic program and Arduino program as well.

Step 4: Difficulties

The struggling we faced was choosing the appropriate controller and its programming method. And after we tried several microcontrollers, we chose a PIC to be as a main microcontroller to do our commands like moving 360 degree by using time interrupt, and we connected it with Arduino Uno to show us the data. Also, we tried to use H-bridge to increase a voltage amount to run a dc motor on, but it was not working with our project. Therefore, we used 2-relays to solve that issue.

Step 5: Conclusion

In conclusion, the project has two system parts as we indicate before which are mechanical part and electrical part. All of them is depending on each other to give us a best result of this project.

Step 6: Project's Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wNpOwBUO4U&feature=youtu.be

Step 7: Appreciation for Dr. Jaber Alyamany

Dr. Jaber Alyamany, we would like to express our thanks and appreciation for your all great efforts you did for us to success this project.

Respect and appreciation,

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