Designing a Speed Controller for DC Motor

Introduction: Designing a Speed Controller for DC Motor

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If you are looking to design a DC motor speed controller that functions without using a microcontroller. So in this post, we'll see how to make such a controller and consider following the steps and pictures to build it easily. Let's get started!

Supplies

Gather Your Components


  • IC - NE555 x 1
  • MOSFET - IRFZ44N x 1
  • Capacitors - 1000uF 16V x 1, 100nF x 1, 10nF x 1, 47nF x 2
  • Resistors - 1kΩ x 3, 10kΩ x 1, 50kΩ Potentiometer x 1
  • 2 pin header connector with female connector x 2
  • 8 Pin IC socket x 1
  • Heatsink (for MOSFET) & screw x 1
  • Veroboard or copper-clad board x 1
  • 12V Motor


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Step 1: Designing the Schematic

Import all the components on the sheet to design the schematic

Step 2: Building the Circuit on a Breadboard

Building the circuit by referring to the schematic. It's still a better idea to test any type of circuit on a breadboard before making the final prototype.

Step 3: Designing the Layout

Converting the schematic to PCB design in the EDA.

If you want to make a PCB, then follow the steps.

  • First download the design, both the top & the bottom layer
  • Take the print on an OHP sheet or photo glossy paper using a laser printer
  • Take a copper board
  • Transfer the development on the board by the method you prefer.

Step 4: Etching the PCB

Etching the PCB with HCL Here I used cupric chloride (CuCl2) as an etchant. Ferric Chloride can also be used.

CAUTION!

Chemicals are HAZARDOUS

  • Wear proper eye goggles for EYE PROTECTION !!
  • Always wear a MASK.
  • Wear hand GLOVES!! Don't touch the chemicals with your bare hands !!


Check for short circuits or broken copper tracks.

Step 5: Drilling & Soldering

Drilling the holes on the PCB, where components are to be mounted

Mount the Components on PCB

And then the soldering part usually everyone loves to do, right?

Step 6: Powering Up the Circuit!

Finally, it's time to test it. Before powering the circuit check everything for short circuits, faulty wiring and also check for correct input polarity (Vcc & ground). Then power the circuit.

If THE MAGIC SMOKE hasn't appeared and the motor is spinning and everything is perfect, then turn the pot shaft to check for the change in speed as you turn it. Do not overload the circuit!

Step 7: Success

Great! You have built your own Speed Controller for DC Motor. I'm making use of this module in one of my upcoming projects and soon it'll be on Instructables.


If you have any doubts feel free to drop a comment😀

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Step 8: Updates

Check out the DIY PCB drill press machine in which the module is used.

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4 Comments

0
riverrunner06
riverrunner06

Question 3 months ago on Step 4

Hi,
I am preparing to make this. I want to use it as a replacement for the motor control on an electric child's car (Jeep). The control on it now is merely an on/off pedal control. A variable control would be far greater. It uses a small 12v battery. My thought is to double the IRFZ44N for load handling safety. The question I have is regarding the diodes shown in the diagram and picture. Also the LED in the diagram that is nowhere else in the build. Is the LED for power verification? That is what it appears to be for. And the diodes are spelled out as 1N4148's in the diagram, just not in the list of parts, nor the LED...
I have a vision of upgrading the motor in the future. What would the load capacity of this controller be?

regards,
Bill Schmid

0
DC Labz
DC Labz

Answer 6 weeks ago

Hello Bill,
It's great to know about your idea of upgrading an Electric Jeep and sorry for the late reply.

Good observation Bill, the LED is missing in the build, it's just for indication and thanks for letting us know about the missing parts from the list. We'll update it soon.

This controller is for low-capacity motors. Using a big capacity load needs some changes to be made in the circuit.

Regards,
DC Labz

0
randofo
randofo

3 years ago

Nice design. How large of a motor have you tried running off of this?

0
DC Labz
DC Labz

Reply 3 years ago

Hmm.. nice question. I used a 12v DC motor.

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