# The Effect of Milk, Vinegar, and Cola on the Enamel of Human Teeth

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## Step 1: The Purpose

To look for the effect of Milk, Vinegar, and Cola on the enamel of human teeth, by using white chicken eggs as an example. Because the eggshell and enamel “contain calcium-based compounds”.

## Step 2: Hypothesis

There will be different results from each eggshell in each cup from color to its thickness or strength by using white chicken eggs, Because the eggshell and enamel “contain calcium-based compounds”.

## Step 3: Variables

1. Dependent variable: The effects in thickness and color on the eggshell

2. Independent variables: Milk, vinegar, and cola

3. Experimental group: three eggs

3-Plastic cups

3-Cola bottles

Milk

Vinegar

3-Eggs

## Step 5: Procedure

This experiment implemented the hypothesis-testing by applying an experiment. Therefore, three white chicken eggs were used, where each egg was put in a separate plastic cup. Each cup contained one liquid. The 1st cup filled with milk, the 2nd cup filled with vinegar, and the 3rd cup filled with cola.

The experiment took three days of observation. In each day, the liquids were changed and replaced with new amount. This was simulation of the real life, where people clean their mouth and brush their teeth, at least once a day.

At the time of changing the liquids, the eggs were removed from the cups and put on a plate. Then, pictures and notices were taken. After that, the eggs were put again in the cups, and the liquids were added. At the end of the third day, the eggs were, finally, removed from the cups.

Day one

## Step 7: Data Analysis: Milk

Cup 1: Milk

Day 1: There were no effects on the egg.

Day 2: There was little effect on the egg, where the eggshell became slightly

thicker

Day 3: There was a change in thickness but not the color of the egg

was a change in thickness but not the color of the egg

## Step 8: Data Analysis: Vinegar

Cup 2: White Vinegar

Day 1:There were no effects but there were lots of bubbles surrounding the egg.

Day 2: There were three changes on the egg, first the egg became larger in size, second there were clumps of dissolved eggshells on the surface of the vinegar, third the color of the egg became clear/ foggy.

Day 3: There was more change in size and the egg had no shell just the outer membrane of the egg and the egg became more squishy, soft, smooth, and the egg became clearer than the second day.

## Step 9: Data Analysis: Cola

Cup 3: Cola

Day 1: There were no effects but there were lots of bubbles surrounding the egg.

Day 2: There were two changes on the eggshell, first the color changed into brown, second it made cracks on the eggshell.

Day 3: The egg had many cracks and the color of the egg became darker and the eggshell was softer and thinner.

## Step 10: Results

The results that were found in this project is if humans drink too much Coke they would have darker and weaker teeth, also, if they use too much vinegar on their food their teeth would also become weaker and it will weaken the tooth enamel, however, if they drink more Milk their teeth would become stronger and it would become whiter.

## Step 11: Application

1. Since the milk consists of calcium, and the eggshell consists of calcium. Therefore, milk supports and strengthens the eggshell. Similarly, the eggshell and the enamel are calcium-based; therefore, the enamel of human teeth should have the same result.

2. Since the vinegar consists of acetic acid, which worked on the erosion of the entire eggshell. Therefore, the calcium could not resist the acetic acid. Similarly, the eggshell and the enamel are calcium-based; therefore, the enamel of human teeth should have the same result.

3. Since the cola consists of phosphoric acid, which worked on weakening the eggshell and changed its color to brown. Therefore, the calcium could not resist the phosphoric acid. Similarly, the eggshell and the enamel are calcium-based; therefore, the enamel of human teeth should have the same result.

## Step 12: Conclution

The milk had the best result; therefore, it is recommended to drink it for the benefit of people dental health. However, vinegar and cola had negative affects compared with milk it will make the teeth sensitive to cold and hot drinks and food; therefore, people must reduce consuming large amount of vinegar and cola.

## Step 13: Evaluation

I used Research Skills for this project to know why or what are the effects of each drink or liquid, or why does this happen to our teeth and to the eggshell. the research helps in identifying and explaining the problem.

## Step 14: Refrences

1. https://ba.coca-colahellenic.com/content/dam/cch/ba/documents/our-24-7-portfolio/125year_a6leaflet_v6.pdf

2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324184#:~:text=Tooth%20decay,-Share%20on%20Pinterest&text=Like%20all%20vinegars%2C%20apple%20cider,their%20tooth%20enamel%20is%20damaged

3. https://sciencing.com/similarities-eggshells-teeth-8427281.html

4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/food-science/vinegar#:~:text=Vinegar%20is%20essentially%20a%20dilute,fermentation%20of%20sugars%20by%20yeast

5. https://app1.unmc.edu/PublicAffairs/TodaySite/sitefiles/today_full.cfm?match=11342#:~:text=Phosphoric%20and%20citric%20acid%2C%20which,McFarland%20said.

## Step 15: Video & Link

https://youtu.be/yi620z_JWAQ

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