# Grade 4 Transfer of Energy Lesson

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## Introduction: Grade 4 Transfer of Energy Lesson

Hello all !

This instructable contains projects that aim to meet certain Indiana educational state standards for grade 4 students. The standards covered are Science 4.PS.1, Science 4. PS.3, Science 4. PS.4.

Educational standards :

1. Science 4.PS.1: Investigate transportation systems and devices that operate on or inland, water, air, and space and recognize the forces (lift, drag, friction, thrust, and gravity) that affect their motion.
2. Science 4. PS.3: Investigate how multiple simple machines work together to perform everyday tasks.
3. Science 4. PS.4: Describe and investigate the different ways in which energy can be generated and/or converted from one form of energy to another form of energy.

The student learning objectives of each standard are shown below :

• Science 4.PS.1:
• I can investigate transportation systems and devices that operate on land.
• I can recognize the forces (lift, drag, friction, thrust, and gravity) that affect their motion.
• I can explain the difference between gravity, thrust, drag, and lift.
• I can investigate transportation systems and devices that operate in the air.
• Science 4. PS.3 :
• I can interpret what a simple machine is and how it would help an engineer to build something.
• I can generate and compare multiple possible solutions to create a simple lever machine based on how well each met the constraints of the challenge.
• I can list 5 different types of simple machines.
• Science 4. PS.4 :
• I can identify different forms of energy.
• I can describe how energy changes form.

This instructable proposes two projects that teachers can use to achieve the learning objectives above, teachers can use either project or both (one following the other). A lesson plan is included in step 1, the teacher can use this in addition to pre-existing lesson plans that teach the learning objectives above. This instructable's intention is to propose a fun activity that helps students solidify knowledge of proposed standards. Therefore, instructable should be incorporated at the end of a science lesson plan that covers the included science standards (Science 4. PS.1, PS.3, PS.4).

## Step 1: Lesson Guide

The following lesson plan is to be used at different stages of the lesson.

1. The vocab sheet is proposed first, this is a tool to make sure students have a basic understanding of the vocabulary used in the activities in steps 2 and 3. Terminology and examples used are repeated in provided in instructions provided in steps 2 and 3.

2. Depending on what project is used, a theory sheet is proposed. The theory sheet seeks to provide a visual aid understanding of the proposed activities shown in steps 2 and 3. This should be handed to students right before they start the activities.

3. The teacher can now introduce the activities in steps 2 and 3. Each activity is expected to take each student 45 minutes to complete.

4. After the activities, students have a short assessment, this can be used at end of the activities to solidify understanding and make sure learning objectives are met. Students will have the chance to cut figures and paste them into their science journals/notebooks. A key is provided for the teacher to grade/go over the assessments.

## Step 2: Car Project

Detailed lesson plan for the car project (90 mins)

1. Introduce the vocab sheet and theory sheets (Step 1 of instructable).
2. Then discuss the following questions with students

Be sure to have the students take notes through the introduction in their science notebooks.

• 1. To introduce the lesson, ask students to list out vehicles they see on the road.
• 2. When students reply with car, bus, motorcycle, etc. Ask them what simple machines the students see as part of the vehicle.
• 3. If students reply with wheel and axle, explain how moving a vehicle is easier on wheels rather than pushing a vehicle without wheels.
• 4. Announce the project that the students will be able to build a car and see for themselves how wheels and axles make a huge difference in day to day travel.

3. Introduce procedures below (45 mins)

4. Review and assessment :

Use attached assessment sheets (Step 1 of instructable).

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Notes to teachers/parents

Enrichment

Students who have previous experience with car assembly or have extensive in cars can experiment with creating different car bodies with spare paper. They can compare how different car bodies affect the car's speed.

Support

Some students may need help with cutting out wheels and creating holes for coffee stirrers through wheels. Teachers/parents are encouraged to provide guidance to help struggling students at this stage.

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Procedures (45 mins)

For the car project, there are two options to do the projects. A manual and a digital option. Both projects allow students to achieve the learning objectives listed in the introduction.

The manual option requires materials that are found typically found around a household. Files needed to carry out the manual option are attached.

• Teacher_Car_manual_instructions.pdf (instructions for 1 student)
• Chassis.pdf (1 per student)
• Student_Car_manual_instructions.pdf (1 per student)

The digital option saves teachers time because of having the parts readily made using a 3-D printer or a laser/Cricut cutter (if available). As well the parts can be reused from year to year then. The parts made using the digital option are also more sturdy and will give students more room to explore different car body shapes.

Files needed to carry out the manual option are attached.

• Teacher_Car_digital_instructions.pdf (instructions for 1 student)
• Student_Card_digital_instructions.pdf (1 per student)

If using a 3-D printer download the following files (PLA or other 3-D printing spool):

• 3d_Car_chassis.stl (print 1 per student)

• 3d_Car_frame.stl (print 4 per student)

• 3d_Car_wheel.stl (print 4 per student)

If using a laser/Cricut cutter download the following zipped file (cardboard material) :

• Cricut_Laser_Car_chassis.dxf (cut 1 per student)
• Cricut_Laser_Car_frame.dxf (cut 4 per student)
• Cricut_Laser_Car_wheel.dxf (cut 4 per student)

Review and Closing
Discuss questions at the end of student procedures (answers in teacher instructions).

## Step 3: Plane Project

For the plane project, there are two options: digital and manual. Both projects allow students to achieve the learning objectives in the introduction as well as learning to fold paper airplanes with different designs.

Detailed lesson plan for the plane project (90 mins)

1. Introduce the vocab sheet and theory sheets (Step 1 of instructable)

2. Then discuss the following introduction question with students

Have students take notes through the introduction in their science notebooks.

1. To introduce the lesson, ask students to name the fastest transportation.
2. If a student answers “airplane”, ask the entire class with a follow-up question, "What do you think makes the airplane go fast?"
3. Ask another question “What animal in the world can also travel like an airplane?”.
4. Explain how birds, like airplanes, could fly in mid-air by introducing the term “gravity” and “lift”.
5. Announce that today the class will learn how to create their own aircraft. Discuss students' prior knowledge in paper airplane folding

3. Introduce procedures below (45 mins)

4. Review and assessment:

Use attached assessment sheets for the plane project (Step 1 of instructable)

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Notes to teachers/parents

Enrichment

Students who have previous experience with paper airplane folding can be encouraged to try some other airplane design beyond the two templates included. The teacher should prepare enough blank paper, also include other advance design options listed in the “Related Links and Media section”

Support

For students who have difficulty following the steps of folding paper planes (such as incorrect folding order, folding direction, or failed to follow the folding line). The teacher could do individual demos, ask other students to help them, or even fold the final product for them.

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Procedures (45 mins)

All instructions need to be accompanied by two plane printout templates

• Teacher_Plane_printoutTemplate1.pdf (1 per teacher + student)
• Teacher_Plane_printoutTemplate2.pdf (1 per teacher + student)

The manual optionfor the plane project requires materials that are found typically in a household. Files that need to carry out the manual option are attached. The teacher needs to print out the following instructions.

• Teacher_Plane_manual_instructions.pdf (1 per teacher)
• Student_Plane_manual_instructions.pdf (1 per student)

The digital optionfor the airplane project added a thrust/pulsion system (plastic propeller) which can be made using a 3-D printer or a laser/Cricut cutter (if available). The parts being made can be reused and give students room to explore how modern airplane uses propeller to generate thrust/pulsion.

The teacher needs to print out the following materials.

• Teacher_Plane_digital_instructions.pdf (1 per teacher)
• Student_Plane_digital_instructions.pdf (1 per student)

If using a laser/Cricut cutter (make sure to use materials that are at least 1/8 inch thick)

• Teacher_Plane_digital_centerRode.dxf (1 per teacher + student)

If using a 3-D printer, use the following .stl file (PLA or other spools)

• Teacher_Plane_digital_centerRode.stl (1 per teacher + student)

Review and Closing

• Ask students to reflect on their airplane folding experience.
• Discuss questions such as:
• What makes the airplane go fast on the zipline?
• How do you think you can make it go further?
• What other airplane designs did you come up with, and how was it?

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